What is a Verb?
Much of the reason why humans utilize the skill of communicating is to express the desired action. We speak to our friends, family and colleagues about things we are doing and are yet to do. That is why you will find that verbs are common to most functional sentences. Since verbs are so widely used, we need to grasps what they are and how they can help form a sentence. This article will assist you in reaching that understanding as well as exploring the various types of verbs common in the English language. What is a verb?
A verb is a ‘doing’ or an ‘action’ word. They express an action or a state of being. Almost every sentence requires a verb. Most of them hold key information about the subject of the sentence.
Whether a verb is literally performing the action in the sentence or merely linking the subject to the rest of the information, they’re always “doing” something Verbs can be expressed in 3 different tenses, depending on when the action is being performed.
THE THREE TENSES
The tense tells us when the action takes place. This can be either PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE
An example of painting a picture, with paint being your verb or ‘doing’ word at different times is given below. Notice how the changing tense (time), changes your verb:
Present, Past and Future
|Present (today)||verb||I paint a picture|
|Past (yesterday)||verb + ed||I painted a picture|
|Future (tomorrow)||Will/shall + verb||I will paint a picture|
Simple, Continuous and Perfect Tenses
|(generally)||(at the moment/ongoing)||(already completed)|
|Present||I drive||I am driving||I have driven|
|Past||I drove||I was driving||I had driven|
|Future||I shall drive||I shall be driving||I shall have driven|
The meaning of each tense is subtly different:
- I shall drive to the coast tomorrow. (Future simple tense)
- I shall be driving to the coast tomorrow. (Future continuous tense)
- I shall have driven to the coast by this time tomorrow. (Future perfect tense)
A finite verb can stand on its own and does not need an auxiliary (helping) verb. A finite verb must have a subject, number (singular or plural) and tense.
Together with the subject, it makes a complete sentence:
- She plays.
- They argue.
It indicates number:
- The girl (one) plays netball.
- The girls (many) play netball.
It has tense:
- Today I play.
- Yesterday I played.
- Tomorrow I shall play.
THE INFINITE VERB
When a verb is preceded by a ‘to’, it is known as the infinite:
- to play
- to argue
- to study
- to discuss
The infinite cannot stand alone. It must be preceded by a finite verb:
- She wants to play
- He came to argue
- She tried to study
- They began to discuss
The infinite should not be split:
- I am going to definitely complete my work tomorrow (incorrect)
- I am definitely going to complete my work tomorrow (correct)
An auxiliary verb is a helping verb.
- It always preceded a verb. She has done all her homework.
- It regulates the tense of its sentence. We could see the sun rising in the east (past tense)
Common auxiliary verbs:
- was were,
Depending on the sentence, the verb may be classified as finite or as an auxiliary verb:
- He is the president of his company. (finite verb)
- He is hoping to become president of his company. (auxiliary verb + present participle)
THE LINKING VERB
- The verb ‘to be’ (is, am, are) is also referred to as the linking verb.
- A linking verb connect a noun with another noun, or a noun with an adjective.
The man is a soldier. (noun)
The man is brave. (adjective)
The word that follows the linking verb is not the object; it is known as the compliment.
|S = Singular/ P = Plural||PRESENT TENSE||PAST TENSE||FUTURE TENSE||FUTURE TENSE If adamant or definite|
|1st person (s)||I am cold||I was cold||I shall be cold||I will be cold!|
|1st person (p)||We are cold||We were cold||We shall be cold||We will be cold!|
|2nd person (s & p)||You are cold||You were cold||You could be cold|
|3rd person (s)||He/she/ it is cold||He/she/it was cold||He/she/it will be cold|
|3rd person (p)||They are cold||They were cold||They will be cold|
TRANSISTIVE AND INTRANSISTIVE VERBS
A verb can be transitive or intransitive depending on whether or not it is followed by a direct object
A transitive verb takes a direct object
I wrote a letter to the editor of the newspaper
- (direct object) – the letter
- (indirect object) – the editor of the news paper
Intransitive verbs are not followed by direct objects
- I wrote to the editor of the newspaper (indirect object)
- I wrote out of concern (adverbial phrase of the reason)
MOOD OF THE VERB
The mood of the verb indicates the speaker’s intention or attitude. There are three main moods:
Indicative – the indicative is used to express a fact or provide information.
- I always buy a lottery ticket
Imperative – the imperative verb expresses instructions or commands.
- My uncle says, ‘Don’t waste your money!’
Subjunctive – the subjunctive mood is used when something is unlikely or to express a wish, doubt or uncertainty.
The linking verb was, changes to were for all persons:
- If I were to win the lottery, he would be surprised (correct)
- If I was to win the lottery, he would be surprised (incorrect)
Participles are formed when we combine an auxiliary verb and a finite verb + ing or ed.
Clouds had formed before the storm.
The participle cannot stand alone:
- The tap leaking. (incorrect)
- The tap is leaking. (correct)
|PRESENT TENSE||PAST TENSE||PRESENT PARTICIPLE||PAST PARTICIPLE|
|I am playing |
He is eating
You are swimming
They are drawing
|I have played|
He has eaten
You have swum
They have drawn
They state the continuous nature of the action and usually end in – ing.
He reads =
- He is reading =
- He was reading =
- He will be reading.
I participate =
- I am participating =
- I was participating =
- I shall be participating.
They help to make the past tense of a verb and usually end in ed, d, en, or n.
They follow verbs such as had has, have, was and were to form new tense:
- The gift was given to the child.
- The fingerprints were matched to the suspect.
- He had received a warning but ignored it.
There are some exceptions e.g. I buy – I have bought. (This is an irregular verb)
A useful way to form a Past Participle is to imagine I have… before the verb:
- I offer my services = I have offered my services
A verb is a ‘doing’ or an ‘action’ word. They express an action or a state of being. Most sentences require them to give us more information about the subject of our sentences.
After spending some time delving into the depths of all that a verb consists of, you should have a solid foundation to be able to successfully identify them in a sentence and use them for yourself. Why not try and come up with some of your own progressions of sentences from present tense to past tense and into future tense? Be sure to take a look at our article on Irregular verbs to familiarize yourself with the words that do not follow the same patterns we have discussed above.
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